Mizoram is one of the states of Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital city. The name is derived from Mi (people), Zo (lofty place, such as a hill) and Ram (land), and thus Mizoram implies "Land of the hill people".
Like several other northeastern states of India, Mizoram was previously part of Assam until 1972, when it was carved out as a Union Territory. It became the 23rd state of India, a step above Union Territory, on 20 February 1987.
Mizoram's population was 1,091,014, according to a 2011 census. It is the 2nd least populous state in the country. Mizoram covers an area of approximately 21,087 square kilometers. About 91% of the state is forested.
About 95% of current Mizoram population is of diverse tribal origins who settled in the state, mostly from southeast Asia, over waves of migration starting about 16th century but mainly in 18th century. This is the highest concentration of tribal people among all states of India, and they are currently protected under Indian constitution as a Scheduled Tribe. The tribes converted from Animist religions to Christianity over the first half of 20th century. Mizoram is one of three states of India with a Christian majority (87%). Its people belong to various denominations, mostly Presbyterian in its North and Baptists in South.
Mizoram is a highly literate agrarian economy, but suffers from slash-and-burn jhum or shifting cultivation, and poor crop yields. In recent years, the jhum farming practices are steadily being replaced with a significant horticulture and bamboo products industry. The state's gross state domestic product for 2012 was estimated at ₹6,991 crore (US$1.0 billion). The state has about 871 kilometers of national highways, with NH-54 and NH-150 connecting it to Assam and Manipur respectively. It is also a growing transit point for trade with Myanmar and Bangladesh.
Mizoram is a land of rolling hills, valleys, rivers and lakes. As many as 21 major hill ranges or peaks of different heights run through the length and breadth of the state, with plains scattered here and there. The average height of the hills to the west of the state are about 1,000 meters (3,300 ft). These gradually rise up to 1,300 meters (4,300 ft) to the east. Some areas, however, have higher ranges which go up to a height of over 2,000 meters (6,600 ft). Phawngpui Tlang also known as the Blue Mountain, situated in the south-eastern part of the state, is the highest peak in Mizoram at 2,210 meters (7,250 ft). About 76% of the state is covered by forests, 8% is fallows land, 3% is barren and considered uncultivable area, while cultivable and sown area constitutes the rest. As per state of forest report 2015 states with maximum forest cover as percentage of their own geographical area. Mizoram being the highest 88.93% Forest.
Mizoram terrain is, according to Geological Survey of India, an immature topography, and the physiographic expression consists of several, almost North-South longitudinal valleys containing series of small and flat hummocks, mostly anticlinal, parallel to sub-parallel hill ranges and narrow adjoining synclinal valleys with series of topographic highs. The general geology of western Mizoram consists of repetitive succession of Neogene sedimentary rocks of Surma Group and Tipam Formation viz. sandstone, siltstone, mudstone and rare pockets of shell limestone. The eastern part is Barail Group. Mizoram, lies in seismic zone V, according to the India Meteorological Department; as with other northeastern states of India, this means the state has the highest risk of earthquakes relative to other parts of India.
The biggest river in Mizoram is Chhimtuipui, also known as Kaladan, Kolodyne or Chimtuipui. It originates in Chin state in Burma and passes through Saiha and Lawngtlai districts in the southern tip of Mizoram, goes back to Burma's Rakhine state. Although many more rivers and streams drain the hill ranges, the most important and useful rivers are the Tlawng, Tut, Tuirial and Tuivawl which flow through the northern territory and eventually join the Barak River in Cachar District. The rivers have a gentle drainage gradient particularly in the south.
The Palak lake is the biggest in Mizoram and covers 30 hectares (74 acres). The lake is situated in Saiha district of southern Mizoram. It is believed that the lake was created as a result of an earthquake or a flood. The local people believe that a submerged village remains intact deep under the waters. The Tam Dil lake is a natural lake situated 85 kilometres (53 mi) from Aizawl. Legend has it that a huge mustard plant once stood in this place. When the plant was cut down, jets of water sprayed from the plant and created a pool of water, thus the lake was named Ţam Dil which means of 'lake of mustard plant'. Today the lake is an important tourist attraction and a holiday resort. The most significant lake in Mizo history, Rih Dil, is ironically located in Burma, a few kilometres from the Indo-Burma border. It was believed that the departed souls pass through this lake before making their way to Pialral or heaven.
|Area||21087 sq km (8142 sq miles)|
|Literacy Rate||91.58% (2011)|
|No. of Districts||11|
|No. of Autonomous District||3|
|No. of Sub Division||23|
|No. of Assembly Constituency||40|
|No. of Seat in Parliament||1|
|State Animal||Saza (Serow)|
|State Bird||Vavu (Hume Bartailed Pheasant)|
|State Flower||Senhri (Red Vanda)|
|State Tree||Herhse (Mesual Ferrea/Nahar)|